TAKE-HOME EXAM, Q2 2021 SGSM STUDENT SURNAME:DAHALSTUDENT FIRST NAME:AMITSTUDENT ID:18898545 INSTRUCTIONS Read all the information below and follow any instructions carefully before proceeding. You are free to use a range of resources to answer these questions. Follow UWS Harvard citation practices if you wish to acknowledge any source material.UNIT NAME:Developing Human Capital and Organisational CapabilityUNIT NUMBER:200827NUMBER OF QUESTIONS:2VALUE OF QUESTIONS:All questions are compulsory. Question 1 is worth 25 marks. Question 2 is worth 25 marks. Total assessment: is worth 50% of your total assessment.LECTURER/UNIT COORDINATOR:Dr Nelson D’SouzaTIME ALLOWED:10 days Due date: midnight 18.6.21TOTAL PAGES:11 Question 1. Aligning HRD efforts to business strategy is key to success while program planning’. Discuss with examples the four-stage model of program planning. Program planning refers to a crucial part of the business’s futuristic setup and success. In the contemporary corporate and professional realm, HRD has gained a broader aspect in the prompt fulfillment of activities and the organizational decision-making process. HRD as a strategic planning partner in organizations and businesses seeks to document strategies and acts that can well suit the business environment and hence uplifts the business strategy to success (Righeimer & Energy 2018). Apart from the employee eccentricity for recruitment, selection, and performance management; the HRD of any business recognizes as a strategic tool for the planning of the business program in ways like maintenance of strategic alignments, controlling the budgets and costs, conflict resolution, and whatnot. These inherent strategies aligned with the business strategies help develop a cutting-edge practice and thus holistic attainment of success to the program planning. The four-stage model of the program planning, as illustrated in the Fig1, describes the alignment of HRD efforts to the business strategy and the gradual flow of succession. Fig1. Four-stage model of program planning Source: Learning Module week 5 (Fig. modified) Needs analysis is the initial process of program planning that involves gathering, organizing, analyzing, and managing the information (Hussain et al. 2018). The initial part of the program planning i.e., needs analysis seeks to scan the business environment to identify the opportunities and key program requirements. Businesses in this step usually account for understanding the current processes and their efficacy in reaching the stated vision, mission, and statements. The process of needs analysis as a part of planning strategy in a business domain incorporate HRD efforts to a vast level. The top-down is a usual approach for program planning and needs assessment enforces HRD strategic intervention in the development of human resource teams for assessment of the internal capabilities of the business, individual, team-wise, an overall assessment of the program planning needs, etc. (Donnelly 2019). Development and maintenance of effective, open, and flexible communication among the human resources refer as another HRD efforts that set a key relation to the business strategy and hence its success in efficient assessment of needs (McCauley-Smith 2018). Moreover, the cross-functional maintenance of the team structure by the HRD can elevate the needs assessment and analysis at the initial level. The identification of the prospects and gaps in the existing program by effective use of HRD efforts and strategies follows to the next stage of the program planning viz. designing the program. The formulation or design stage of the planning stage incorporates a clear picture of what aspects require redressal in order to accomplish the business goals of program planning (Adobor 2019). The formulation of the program designed in the effect of the needs analyzed in the initial process prioritizes the identification and analysis of the resources required concerning the organization’s resource capability. In the design part of the four staged program planning process, the business’ design process stage is more focused on the program designing that can fulfill the needs assessed in the preliminary stage. The HRD intervention and its strategic efforts focus on organizing the human resources and managing them in the most skilled and competent way for design fulfillment of the program (Gaudet, Brown & Lunsford 2017). The HRD’s efforts of aligning the human capital by using the tools of training and development, performance management, and employee welfare provide direction to the HRD’s success and hence provide aid to the business’ process of program designing. Businesses and organizations, with the gradual process from program design to implementation training, seek a shift in the needs and strategies to process further. The implementation of the program accounts for efficient development of the human capital and other business resources to well adapt the designed program. To achieve the program-focused objectives and strategies of the business, the intervening HRD efforts – in the business and organizational settings, promotes the human resource engagement toward the change (Hussain et al. 2018). The HRD intervention effectively administers the change management process incurred in the process, provides the strategic development of performance opportunities among the human resources, and serves a good training and learning approach for productive yields. Moreover, the HRD efforts as strategic involvement in the business strategies derive a higher sense of engagement and motivation among the human resource part of the business, which eventually drives the key success factor to the organization success (Donnelly 2019). In the process of implementing training to the program planning designed, the use of Kurt Lewin’s change management model serves as an effective technique in the HRD. Unfreeze, change, and refreeze as three major components of the change model provide a clear roadmap to the management of program design and implementation as planned – to achieve organizational success (Hussain et al. 2018). Fig2. Kurt Lewin change model Source: Self Lastly, as soon as the implementation and training part of program planning seeks its finalization, the evaluation process of the program planning is initiated. Businesses and organizations undoubtedly strive for getting continuous improvement in the planning process and hence adjust the evaluation as a prominent part of the stages. The businesses, in the stage of program planning evaluation, strategize the comparative measurement of the observed program planning performance against the standard or estimated program planning performance metrics (Zgurovsky & Pavlov 2018). The business further captivates learning and continuous improvement in this stage for effective filling of the gaps identified in the results and hence focuses on benchmarking (Righeimer & Energy 2018). Aligning the refreezing approaches and other strategic efforts to the evaluation stage by HRD assists in aligning the practices with the organizational process and hence efficient fulfillment of the performance gaps. The HRD strategizes, in this stage, utilizes the efficient monitoring, coaching, and competency skills of its human resources, and serves as a strategic advisor and leader at the same time for extracting the potential from the human resources (Gaudet, Brown & Lunsford 2017). Thus, the overall analysis of the four-staged model utility in business program planning explores that the constant need for HRD intervention and alignment is a key element in the business. Henceforth, aligning the HRD efforts and strategies provides short-term accomplishment of business goals that integrates and accelerates the achievement of the long-term business strategies. References Adobor, H 2019, ‘Opening up strategy formulation: Benefits, risks, and some suggestions’, Business Horizons, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 383-393, viewed on 15 June 2021, Elsevier ScienceDirect, doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2019.01.005. Donnelly, R 2019, ‘Aligning knowledge sharing interventions with the promotion of firm success: The need for SHRM to balance tensions and challenges, Journal of Business Research, vol. 94, pp. 344-352, viewed on 15 June 2021, . Gaudet, CH, Brown, HQ & Lunsford, DL 2017, ‘HRD curriculum meets global human capital challenge’, Advances in Developing Human Resources, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 124-137, viewed on 16 June 2021, . Hussain, ST, Lei, S, Akram, T, Haider, MJ, Hussain, SH & Ali, M 2018, ‘Kurt Lewin’s change model: A critical review of the role of leadership and employee involvement in organizational change’, Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 123-127, viewed on 16 June 2021, . McCauley-Smith, C, 2018, ‘Book review: HRD, OD, and institution building. Essay in memory of Udai Pareek’, Management Learning, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 378-384, viewed on 16 June 2021, Sage Journals, . Righeimer, J & Energy, M 2018, ‘Aligning human resources & strategic plans’, Journal of Management and Business Research, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 22-35, viewed 16 June 2021. Zgurovsky, MZ & Pavlov, AA 2019, ‘Algorithms and software of the four-level model of planning and decision making’, Combinatorial Optimization Problems in Planning and Decision Making, vol. 173, pp. 407-518, Springer, Cham, viewed on 16 June 2021, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-98977-8_9 Question 2. a) Analyze the context, process, and outcome of ‘Measuring the value of human capital investments by SAP America’. SAP Inc. is an American software corporation that witnessed a great downfall in its operational efficiencies and financial results. The lack of alignment in the business practices, divisions, and sub-divisions at SAP impacted the firm’s industrial performance. The article proposed by Cantrell et al. (2016, p.44) describes that the radical shift of the company’s strategy and its optimum focus on pacing alignment with the human capital development aided as a key factor to organizational success. Human capital represents one of the most eminent elements of business succession, performance, and productivity (Drabek, Lorincova & Javorcikova 2017). Investing soundly in the allocation of skilled human resources and developing them as capital to the firm ensures the prosperity of the business to a noticeable extent. Cantrell et al. (2016, p.45) further demonstrate the human capital development framework that explains how the formulation of human capital processes led the firm SAP Inc. to profitable business results. According to the case reported by Cantrell et al. (2016), the company SAP Inc. considered the human capital development processes such as recruitment of competent and multilateral candidates, efficient planning of the workforce, provision of rewards and recognition, learning management, and many more as the fundamental base of the human capital development (Subramony et al. 2018). These processes have been identified to increase the human capital capabilities in the organization. The organization witnessed the increased leadership capabilities, human capital efficiency, effective change management, talent management, and various other capacities fostered by the human capital processes. SAP Inc. as a focused organization in the study, observed the increased measures of productivity, quality, innovation, and serviceability as its key drivers because of high human capital capabilities (Delery & Roumpi 2017) (refer Fig3). As a result of the overall human capital development framework followed, SAP Inc. has undergone a gradual increase in its revenue, wealth, stakeholder, and shareholder values, and also the organizational future value. Also, some of SAP Inc.’s organizational processes and the human capital values served as effective benchmarked results. Fig3. The human capital development framework – Process Source: Cantrell et al. (2006, p.45) The value of human capital turned as one of the profitable investments for SAP Inc. with its gradual progress on providing opportunities for its human capital to learn and grow in the organizational premise, developing employees into human capital for the firm by providing a supportive work environment (Delery & Roumpi 2017). It can foster organizational relationships, creation of the strategic alignment between human resource development strategy and business strategy by creating an understanding of the need, value, and importance of human resources for the fulfillment of activities. Overall, the article proposed by Cantrell et al. (2016, p.44) revealed that the value of a human capital investment in SAP Inc. provided ample opportunities and visible growth to the firm. The former versus latter analysis of the business profitability revealed a noticeable difference, that witnesses its investment surge with the increasing value of human capital in the firm SAP Inc. The company’s actions on developing the human capital as a business investment after understanding it as a factor of business’ downfall, and its continuous improvement led the firm to observe operating and financial leverages (Vidotto et al. 2017). The overall analysis of the case study of SAP Inc. has thus generated the learning that human capital in the businesses and organizations must be considered as a business investment and elements of prospects that can provide leveraging results and outcomes in the organizational favor. b) Discuss the contribution to organizational development through consideration of integrity and ethical corporate behavior in the area of human resource development. Organizational development or OD refers to a critical, scientifically systematic process that enhances the organizational capacities to change management, increasing effectiveness, and continuous improvement by radical reinforcement of strategies, structures, and processes (Anning-Dorson et al. 2017). Organizational developmental theories and approaches contributed to any business or workplace through the consideration of integrity and ethics cater a consistent system of performance and workflows among the human resources, eventually easing the human resource management practices within. Developing the human capital in the organization or business, as implemented by SAP Inc, seeks higher dependence on the organizational environment, which gradually is a determinant of the organizational development approaches followed (Cantrell et al. 2008, p.51). Moreover, the development of human capital at a holistic level also elaborates the organizational capability and development (Anning-Dorson et al. 2017). Organizational development has been referred to as a behavioral science that comprises an array of theories and models oriented towards improving the organizational structure and individual development (Huffington 2018). Integrity and ethical corporate behaviors are the key elements in organizational development that foster interpersonal and group relationships, promotion of workplace relations, open and fair communication system, employee engagement, and improved corporate relations (Anning-Doorson et al. 2017). From the Sap Inc.’s case proposed by Cantrell et al. (2018, p.51), the sense of integrity in an organization, especially supported by the effective organizational development theories, provides an open and fair system of work, improves the HR based operations, adds value to the resources, and focuses on making positive decisions of the organization. In a likewise manner, SAP’s involvement of ethical corporate behavior catalyzes openness and fairness, higher mutual understanding, and cooperation among human resources (Cantrell et al. 2018). The sense of strong leadership traits and styles, team building and management perspectives, management by objective, and various other contributions from organizational development seeks to enhance the individual catering in the workplace and hence the organizational development gradually that eventually helped Sap Inc. to magnify its investments in human capital profitably (Singh & Ramdeo 2020, p.151; Cantrell et al. 2018, p.52). To develop the human capital into organizational capability, focusing on the comprehensive parts of the development is necessary. Development of integrity and team-focus, promoting the organization-wide activities, and readiness to organizational change and development can serve as some of the tremendous acts of forming a strong organizational capability (Vidotto et al. 2017). Leadership management is an important framework of organizational development that provides direction, implement plans, and motivates human resources within the organization to derive profitability can represent as an effective tool in developing human capability (Anning-Dorson et al. 2017). Moreover, as identified in the Sap Inc’s case, the incorporation of team management as a supportive framework or technique integrates and engages the individual capabilities to develop as an organizational capability that forms a strong, learning management profile to SAP (Cantrell et al. 2018). Also, change acts as an inevitable part of any organization. SAP’s readiness to change, change adaptability, and development can also serve as frugal aspects to the individual capability due to its increased knowledge management, and hence to the organizational capability due to its continuous improvement and innovation factors (Singh & Ramdeo 2020). Thus, it can be concluded that organizational development contributes positively to creating the essence of integrity and ethical corporate culture that catalyzes the human resource management and development within. Also, the prompt and adequate utilization of the organizational development theories and framework can seek to provide individual development and growth and hence may uplift the organizational capability under the human capital influence. References Anning-Dorson, T, Odoom, RK, Acheampong, G & Tweneboah-Koduah, E 2017, ‘Innovation and organizational development: the role of organizational leadership’, African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 338-351, viewed on 16 June 2021, ProQuest, DOI 10.1108/AJEMS-06-2016-0091 . Delery, JE & Roumpi, D 2017, ‘Strategic human resource management, human capital, and competitive advantage: is the field going in circles?’, Human Resource Management Journal, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 1-21, viewed on 16 June 2021, Wiley Online Library, . Drabek, J, Lorincova, S & Javorcikova, J 2017, Investing in human capital as a key factor for the development of enterprises’, Issues of Human Resource Management, pp. 113-136, viewed on 16 June 2021, DOI 10.5772/67741 . Huffington, C 2018, A manual of organizational development: The psychology of change, Routledge, New York. Singh, R & Ramdeo, S 2020, Leading Organizational Development and Change: Principles and Contextual Perspectives, Springer Nature, UK. Subramony, M, Segers, J, Chadwick, C & Shyamsunder, A 2018, ‘Leadership development practice bundles and organizational performance: The mediating role of human capital and social capital’, Journal of business research, vol. 83, pp. 120-129, viewed on 15 June 2021, . Vidotto, JDF, Ferenhof, HA, Selig, PM & Bastos, RC 2017, ‘A human capital measurement scale’, Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 316-329, viewed on 15 June 2021, ProQuest, DOI:10.1108/JIC-08-2016-0085.
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