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147 International Journal of Communication Networks and Information Security (IJCNIS) Vol. 8, No. 3, December 2016Security and Privacy Issues in IoTAqeel-ur-Rehman1, Sadiq Ur Rehman2, Iqbal Uddin Khan, Muzaffar Moiz and Sarmad HasanHamdard Institute of Engineering and Technology, Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan [email protected], [email protected]Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT) is a global network of physical and virtual ‘things’ connected to the internet. Each object has unique ID which is used for identification. IoT is the emerging technology which will change the way we interact with devices. In future almost every electronic device will be a smart device which can compute and communicate with hand-held and other infrastructure devices. As most of the devices may be battery operated, due to less processing power the security and privacy is a major issue in IoT. Authentication, Identification and device heterogeneity are the major security and privacy concerns in IoT. Major challenges include integration, scalability, ethics communication mechanism, business models and surveillance. In this paper major issues related to security and privacy of IoT are focused.Keywords: Security, Privacy, IoT, Authentication, Access control, Identification. IntroductionA decade ago, Kevin Ashton was the one who coined and used the term Internet of thing (IoT) for the very first time. In IoT every object whether virtual or physical is communicable, addressable and accessible through the Internet. Every object will have its own ID and has the capability to sense, compute and communicate. Pervasive nature of the objects in IoT makes data which is collected and transmitted for public and private use are very important and security of that data should be ensured. Integrity and confidentiality of transmitted data must be maintained as well as the authentication of the objects is the key aspects of IoT security and privacy. Figure 1. Gartner’s 2013 Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies [1] Referred to Fig. 1, Hype Cycle give us the information regarding the emerging trends in which IoT marked with red line. Security and privacy is a vast topic that covers whole protocol stack. Major security issues in IoT include Authentication, Identification and device heterogeneity. Witheach device having its own ID, It will be very difficult to identify billions of devices. Same is the case with Authentication. Authenticating every device can be a tedious job. One of the major security concerns is device heterogeneity. There are many different types of devices in IoT and it prevents from applying single uniform security solution across the board. Every device has different security needs. Device heterogeneity can cause problems in other aspects as well. Following is the section-wise breakup of this paper: Section 2 contains Dissimilarities in between IoT and Standard Internet. IoT technologies will be discussed in Section 3, Architectures and Applications of IoT is in Section 4. IoT protocols related to security in Section 5, Security and privacy needs of IoT along with the privacy enhancing technologies is present in Section 6. Section 7 contains major security issues. Remedy of problems regarding security and privacy issues will be covered in Section 8 and finally, Section 9 will be the Future research direction and Section 10 is going to be a Conclusion. Dissimilarities in between IoT and Standard InternetThere is an obvious difference between IoT and conventional internet (referred to Table 1). The first key difference is in the deployment of these both. IoT network is commonly set-out on network with the characteristics of slow processing, limited memory and less power. This types of networks areTable 1. Extended Comparison between Traditional Network and IoT [2]Topic Traditional Internet IoT Who creates contents? Human Machine How is the content combined? Using explicitly defined links Through explicitly defined operations What is the value Answer questions Action and timely information What was done so far? Both content creation (HTML) and content consumption (search engine) Mainly content creation Type of Connections Point-to-point and Multipoint Only Multipoint Digital Data Readily available Does not generate unless augmented or manipulated Technology Concept based on Both Physical-fist and Digital-first Physical-firstusually know as Low power and Lossy Networks (LLNs) which encounters high data loss

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