Review of Design Elements – My Assignment Tutor

energiesArticleReview of Design Elements within Power InfrastructureCyber–Physical Test Beds as Threat Analysis EnvironmentsBjorn Vaagensmith 1,* , Vivek Kumar Singh 1 , Robert Ivans 1 , Daniel L. Marino 2 ,Chathurika S. Wickramasinghe 2, Jacob Lehmer 1 , Tyler Phillips 1 , Craig Rieger 1 and Milos Manic 2Citation: Vaagensmith, B.; Kumar, V.;Ivans, R.; Marino, D.L.;Wickramasinghe, C.S.; Lehmer, J.;Phillips, T.; Rieger, C.; Manic, M.Review of Design Elements withinPower Infrastructure Cyber–PhysicalTest Beds as Threat AnalysisEnvironments. Energies 2021, 14,1409. Editor: Edmund WidlReceived: 6 January 2021Accepted: 15 February 2021Published: 4 March 2021Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutralwith regard to jurisdictional claims inpublished maps and institutional affiliations.Copyright: © 2021 by the authors.Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.This article is an open access articledistributed under the terms andconditions of the Creative CommonsAttribution (CC BY) license ( Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415, USA; [email protected] (V.K.S.);[email protected] (R.I.); [email protected] (J.L.); [email protected] (T.P.);[email protected] (C.R.)2 College of Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, 601 West Main Street, Richmond, VA 23284, USA;[email protected] (D.L.M.); [email protected] (C.S.W.); [email protected] (M.M.)* Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: +1-208-526-4008Abstract: Cyber–physical systems (CPSs) are an integral part of modern society; thus, enhancingthese systems’ reliability and resilience is paramount. Cyber–physical testbeds (CPTs) are a safe wayto test and explore the interplay between the cyber and physical domains and to cost-effectivelyenhance the reliability and resilience of CPSs. Here a review of CPT elements, broken down intophysical components (simulators, emulators, and physical hardware), soft components (communication protocols, network timing protocols), and user interfaces (visualization-dashboard designconsiderations) is presented. Various methods used to validate CPS performance are reviewed andevaluated for potential applications in CPT performance validation. Last, initial simulated results fora CPT design, based on the IEEE 33 bus system, are presented, along with a brief discussion on howmodel-based testing and fault–injection-based testing (using scaling and ramp-type attacks) may beused to help validate CPT performance.Keywords: cyber–physical system; smart grid; communication protocols; network timing; datavisualization; ramp attack; scaling attack; cyber–physical testbed metrics1. IntroductionElectricity, used as a medium for either data or power transfer, plays an essential rollin maintaining and advancing the quality of life for modern society. As its penetrationin day-to-day life becomes ubiquitous, our dependency on electricity’s presence andvulnerability in its absence increases. Therefore, ensuring the reliability and resilience ofthe electric power grid is essential. Natural disasters are the most common threat to themodern-day electric grid, accounting for 62% and 90% of major power outages in 2016 and2017, respectively, according to the Department of Energy, Office of Electricity (DOE-OE)Electric Disturbance Events OE-417 forms [1]. Cyberattacks also have the potential tocause widespread blackouts [2] and damage to power transformers (via remote control ofbreakers) [3] or generators [4,5]. Additionally, cyberattacks may be deployed en masse (withfrequencies as high as 10,000 attacks per minute [6]) alongside a natural disaster. To addressthese challenges and ensure resilient and reliable power-grid operation, the interplaybetween the digital and physical realm must be understood and properly guarded.The need for reliability negates the possibility of direct experiment on critical infrastructure, and the cost to produce a direct replica is often too high. To overcome thischallenge, cyber–physical test beds (CPTs), with a primary aim to explore how the physicaland digital world impact each other, are needed. Varying degrees of hardware-in-the-loop(HIL) connected with simulations or emulations are most-often employed as a cost-effectivemeans to probe the cyber–physical nature of critical systems [7]. These test beds must strikethe appropriate balance among what is simulated, emulated, and physically manifestedEnergies 2021, 14, 1409. 2021, 14, 1409 2 of 24as HIL while maintaining the flexibility to cost-effectively study the resilience posture ofmany types of system typologies and configurations.Many highly varied types of CPTs have been investigated to aid in the development ofmanufacturing [8,9] unmanned aerial vehicles [10], cellular [11], electric vehicles [12], maritime systems [13], control systems [14], and more. The unifying connection between thesesystems is the electric power grid. Without power, cyber–physical systems will not function.Thus, the aim of this work is to focus primarily on CPTs for power systems. From thispoint forward, all references to CPTs will be considered within a power-system context.This paper attempts to review various design elements that must be considered whenconstructing a CPT, as shown in Figure 1. Section 2 reviews the physical componentsthat comprise CPTs: hardware, emulators, and simulators. Trade-offs between differentphysical components and examples of their implementations are discussed. Section 3reviews soft components within CPT (communication and timing protocols and wide-areamonitoring) within the context of test-bed scope and application to facilitate appropriateprotocol selection. Section 4 presents a custom visualization and alert system, as well asvarious design considerations that went into its construction for a power-distribution CPT.Section 5 reviews various testing methodologies for CPSs and attempts to extrapolate theseconcepts for application to CPT performance validation. To the authors’ best knowledge,no discussion has appeared in the literature of universal test methods or the benchmarksresearchers may use to compare one CPT with another. This section attempts to formulatethese testing methods. Section 6 discusses an initial effort to design a CPT for powerdistribution systems and provides an example of scaling and ramp attacks against aphotovoltaic (PV) inverter, as well as how these results may be used in the model-basedtesting (MBT) and fault injection-based testing (FBT) described in Section 5. Section 7contains concluding remarks.Figure 1. Three levels of consideration for cyber–physical testbed construction.2. Hardware Components for Constructing Cyber–Physical Test Beds2.1. Advantages and Disadvantages of Physical Hardware, Emulators And SimulatorsCPTs are composed of different combinations of hardware, emulators, and simulators.Table 1 qualitatively lists generalized advantages and disadvantages of each approach.Ideally, a CPT may organize all three elements to minimize the disadvantages and maximizethe advantages each brings to bear.Energies 2021, 14, 1409 3 of 24A purely physical–hardware-based CPT would provide the most ideal representationof real systems. One example of a purely hardware-based CPT is Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Critical Infrastructure Test Range Complex (CITRC) [15]. CITRIC boastsof containing its own fully functioning substation, which contains both distribution- andtransmission-class voltages and is ideally located for testing new power-grid solutions under a wide range of weather conditions. The testing and maintenance costs of this system,however, are very high compared to a real-time simulation with HIL setup. Hydro Quebecalso has a purely hardware-based distribution CPT [16]. This test bed operates at 25 kV andhas solar, wind, and storage assets attached; it is fed by its own independent transformerfrom a distribution substation. While these purely hardware-based CPT systems are idealfor testing and validation of system components, they require large amounts of real estateand are not practical for most research institutions. Although simulation and emulationhave less fidelity, they can help reduce cost and size constraints on a CPT.To the authors’ best knowledge, a purely simulation- or emulation-based CPT wasnot found. A common strategy observed was to simulate the power-grid portion whileemulating or using real hardware for the cybernetic component or specific distributionenergy resources (DERs) [7,17,18]. Real-time simulation platforms—e.g., RTDS, Opal-RT,dSPACE, and Typhone HIL—have power systems models readily available to easily scalethe size of the power grid modeled in the CPT. Thus, real-time simulation provides acost-effective means to make the CPT more flexible and scalable.Another advantage of simulation and emulation is the ability to connect test bedsseparated by large geographic distances [19]. Although data latency issues present somelimitations and must be addressed when considering a real-time simulation or emulation remote connection, the strategic expansion of test-bed assets may well be worth thetradeoff. One strategy is to separate a power-system model from the control-system interface, as outlined in [20], where one CPT specializes in power-system modeling, and theother in data visualization. Monti et al. reported on an intercontinental CPT connectionover real-time simulation, using high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) partitioning in thereal-time simulation and VILLAS framework [19]. The HVDC links require less information exchange compared to high-voltage alternating-current (HVAC) links to maintainsimulation-timing integrity. The VILLAS framework also reduces the communication overhead by reverting to a peer-to-peer style of communication, rather than using a centralizedcommunication authority.Table 1. Generalized advantages and disadvantages of simulation, emulation, and hardware components for a cyber–physical system.Simulation Emulation HardwareCost Low Medium HighFidelity Low Medium HighScalability High Medium-high LowInteroperability Low Medium-high HighComputational expense Low High None2.2. Hardware-, Emulator-, And Simulator-Based Representaitons of Physical, Cybernetic,and Cyber–Physical Elements within CPTsFigure 2 provides examples of simulated, emulated, and physical-hardware representations for the main components within a CPS: physical, cybernetic, and cyber–physicalinterfaces. The physical system represents hardware responsible for generating, conditioning (e.g., using capacitor banks), transporting, sensing (e.g., by means of currenttransformers), and interrupting power to the loads. The cybernetic system comprisesdigital control devices that are able to manipulate physical components to facilitate efficientoperation or prevent damage to the system. The cyber–physical interface is generally wherethe conversion of digital information to physical changes on the system occurs or wherephysical measurements (typically analog) are converted to digital representations [21,22].Energies 2021, 14, 1409 4 of 24Each of the three components within a CPS are synchronized by time. A CPT attemptsto represent these three areas via simulation, emulation, physical hardware, or by somecombination thereof.Physical system Cyber-physical interface Cyber systemHardware Emulation SimulationPower System Simulatione.g. OPAL-RT, RTDS.Power System Emulatione.g. Typhoon HIL, V&Delectronics, FPGAPower System Hardwaree.g. Solar panels, Switchgear, Transmission linesCommunication NetworkSimulatione.g. GNS3, OPNET,NetSimCommunication NetworkEmulatione.g. Emulab, NetEmCommunication Devicese.g. PMU, RTU, LPDC,router, switchControl CenterSimulatione.g. Python,Webapps, KafkaControl CenterEmulatione.g. RTDMS,OSISoftControl CenterServers/ aggregatorse.g. SPDC, Serverracks,Figure 2. Different commercial solutions for representing physical, cybernetic, and cyber–physical components of acyber–physical test bed.Real-time simulations are typically carried out on special platforms which producecalculations within fixed time steps. Due to their low cost in comparison to a purelyhardware system, simulations are typically a good way to start building a CPT. Until actualhardware is connected, the simulation does not need to be in real-time, which allowsfor faster debugging and development. While OPAL-RT and RTDS are very popularcommercial solutions for real-time power-grid simulaltions, others have attempted to adoptRaspberry Pi as a lower-cost alternative [23]. GNS3 and OPNET are network simulators andmay be used to interface with physical-system simulators, as discussed in [24]. The maindrawback of network simulators like GNS3 and OPNET is a lack of real-time functionality;thus, the authors in [24] opted to use network emulators running on a series of RaspberryPis, along with control algorithms written in Python.Emulating an entire physical power grid is challenging because emulators typicallyattempt to mimic single components or bulk-grid inertia [25]. Collecting enough emulatorsto comprise a sizable grid would be expensive. In [26], a fully reconfigurable emulatedtest bed was reported to allow for greater time-scale flexibility, compared to real-timesimulations, and a wider range of voltage-class systems compared to actual hardware-basedtest beds. A LabView control-room interface was used to monitor and operate the powergrid; however, no mention of cybernetworks was provided. Current-transformer (CT) andvoltage-transformer (VT) measurements were simply fed directly from the emulation intoNI-CompactRIO running the control-room interface. In [24], an OPAL-RT system was usedto simulate the power grid while real-time Raspberry Pis, running NetEm, a Linux networkemulator, were used to emulate network-control traffic. DeterLab and ISEAGE are othernetwork-emulation tools that may be used to study network security for smart grids [27,28].Control-room software, such as RTDMS, GE iFIX SCADA, and Modbus, could be run in anemulated environment; however, there is no disadvantage to directly running control-roomsoftware on physical machines [29–31].Energies 2021, 14, 1409 5 of 24Cyber–physical systems may also include servers for data storage, in addition torunning supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) software [29–31]. Physical hardware that interfaces with measurement devices such as CTs, VTs, and phasor-measurementunits (PMUs), is location of the cyber–physical interface. Including these devices can bemore cost effective than attempting to emulate them and save on computation expense.Likewise, it is common to have microgrid components such as solar panels, batteries,and charge controllers because these are more affordable, and simulation or emulationresources may then be reserved for more-challenging tasks. Physical transmission or distribution lines, for example, are typically not practical for most institutions; thus, they requirereal-time simulation or emulation.3. Soft Components for Cyber–Physical Testbeds3.1. Common Communication Protocols for CPSs and CPTsCommunication protocols are a critical part of CPT and are used to link the variouscomponents: real-time simulations, real-time emulators, or hardware. The selection ofcommunication protocols to be added is also an important aspect of CPT design to ensure itadequately reflects the operation of real power grids, provides a justifiable means to answerresearch questions, and fits within the test bed scope (e.g., distribution, transmission,microgrid, etc.). In this section, a brief description of popular communication protocolsused in the power industry is presented. Table 2 summarizes the protocols described inthis section.Table 2. Description of various popular protocols used within cyber–physical test beds.Protocols Locations Advantages VulnerabilitiesDNP3(IEEE 1815)Control center (masterunit) and outstationdevices [32]High reliabilityand flexibilityUnsolicited messageattack, Data set injection,Passive networkreconnaissance [32]ModbusControl center (masterunit) and outstationdevices [33],substation networksOpen accessstandard, easyimplementationMalware, spoofing,Man-in-the-Middle,DoS, Replay [33,34]OPC Control center andoutstation devicesOperating systemagnostic, openaccess standardmalware [35],Relay attacksIEC 60870 Control center,substation networksFollows theOSI modelSpoofing, sniffing,data modification, relay,non-repudiation [36]IEC 61850 Substation networksHighly flexible,focus on adaptablesubstation automation,substation hierarchyeasily viewedUnauthorized access,DoS, spoofing,Man-in-the-Middle,data interception [37]IEEE C37.118 WAN, substationnetworksSupports real-timedata transferDoS, reconnaissance,authentication,man-in-the-middle,replay [38]Energies 2021, 14, 1409 6 of 24DNP3: Distributed Network Protocol 3 (DNP3) was originally designed for SCADAapplications and made available to the public in 1993. DNP3 focused on sending multiplesmaller-sized packets in a deterministic sequence to enhance communication reliabilityand error detection. DNP3 has been widely adopted by North American power utilitiesand has gained popularity within the water, oil, and gas industries [39,40]. For use overlocal area networks (LANs), DNP3 must be wrapped inside an internet protocol (IP) suchas TCP/IP. DNP3 has adapted to support a wide range of communication modes, such astraditional client/server, peer-to-peer, multimaster, and hierarchical. The adaptivity andflexibility of DNP3 to industry demands, coupled with its high degree of reliability, hasmade it the dominant protocol of choice for power-distribution networks in North Americatoday [39,40].Modbus: Modbus was first developed in 1979 as a communication protocol betweenprogrammable logic controllers (PLCs). The standard became very popular due to its facileimplementation and open access to the standard. Modbus is supported by a variety ofdifferent transmission protocols for asynchronous serial transmission, TCP/IP, and Modbusplus. This allows the protocol to be used across many different device types—humanmachine interfaces (HMIs), PLCs, relays, network gateways, and other input/output (I/O)devices—over a large area network [39]. With the adoption of TCP/IP into the standard,communication to many power system devices and SCADA applications became possible.The data packets used over Modbus were variable in size, depending on how large the datafield was. This caused issues with data integrity because portions of very large packetsmay have become corrupt or disrupted during transmission. The biggest drawback of theModbus protocol was a lack of security in data or command authentication, which madesystems using Modbus vulnerable to, e.g., man-in-the-middle or spoofing cyberattacks.OPC: The Open Platform Communications (OPC) was first introduced as an openstandard in 1996 for automation control devices to interface with HMIs. The standardwas updated in 2008 to a unified architecture (UA) version, which included many of thelegacy features from previous versions, including accessing process data, transmittingevents or alarms, transferring historical data, and leveraging eXtensible Markup Language(XML) to encode data access. OPC-UA also aimed to be operating-system agnostic andoffered security features such as encryption and user authentication. Although popularwithin industrial processes, OPC-UA was not widely adopted within the power-systemcommunity [35]. Microgrids, on the other hand, have made OPC-UA a popular choice forcommunication of their automation controls [35,41].IEC 60870: The International Electrical Commission (IEC) 60870 standard was firstintroduced in 1990 for remote control of power-system operations. The standard adheres to the open-systems interconnection (OSI) model and focuses on the physical, datalink, and application layers. The standard originally suffered from a broad executioninterpretability, which lead to a large variety of incompatible manifestations of the 60870standard [40]. To solve this issue, the standard was updated in 2001 to better define howdifferent devices should communicate. The updated standard also required devices ona network to have present instructions regarding packet structures to avoid sending thisinformation within the packets themselves, which improved communication efficiency.Coupled with an update from 2000, the standard also supported TCP/IP communication between substations and control centers. Despite these updates, the standard stilllacked clarity for specific use cases, again resulting in diverse implementations, and theTCP/IP implementation was operationally restrictive, limiting information types andconfiguration parameters.IEC 61850: First published in 2003, IEC 61850 sought to introduce a standard focusedon automation and flexibility for intelligent substations. The United States NationalInstitute of Standards and Technology (NIST) identified this as one of five “foundational”standards for smart-grid interoperability and cybersecurity [42]. The standard introducesits own substation configuration language based of XML, a high-level programminglanguage compatible with a wide variety of communication protocols, to facilitate systemEnergies 2021, 14, 1409 7 of 24wide component configuration. Substation communication is binned into one of threedifferent categories: process (e.g., I/O devices and sensors), unit (e.g., protection andsubstation devices), and substation (the control computer or operators control HMI) levels.Within each of these communication levels, a series of protection and control functions aredefined for various objects (also referred to as logic nodes (LNs)). Each LN correspondsto various substation device functions and can be grouped to logic devices that representintelligent electrical devices (IEDs). The protocol also includes provisions for transmittinggeneric object-oriented substation events (GOOSE). Although previous protocols allowedfor custom applications to configure and automate substation settings and operations, IEC61850 includes specific instructions for how to do this, with definitions for over 100 LNs andmore than 2000 data objects or data attributes. Additionally, users can access informationhierarchies based on all LNs and objects to gain a sense of how substations are organizedlogically. The main drawback of IEC 61850 is its higher complexity compared to legacyprotocols. IEC 61850 is described as having a steep learning curve and requiring significanteffort to implement [39]. Because of these difficulties and the lack of manpower to supporta significant upgrade, IEC 61850 has not been widely adopted in North America [43,44].IEEE C37.118: Establised in 2005, this protocol was designed for real-time exchangeof synchronized phasor-measurement data between power-system equipment [45]. Initialversions included both measurement and real-time data-transfer requirements. It providesan open-access method to facilitate the development and use of synchrophasors, allowingdata transmission and accretion within a phasor–measurement system [45]. IEEE StandardC37.118-2005 was eventually split into two standards, one with measurement requirementsand the other with the data-transfer requirements. This allowed for the use of IEEEC37.118 with other communication protocols. Further, this protocol was created withsufficient flexibility to account for future developments and enable a smooth transition ofsynchrophasor systems to new protocols as necessitated [45].3.2. Timing and Data SynchronizationModern smart grids commonly consist of interconnected hardware and software components in distributed substations, communicating with each other to achieve a commongoal [46]. In order to function and make decisions properly, the correct timing of data measured throughout geographically distributed sensors in the system must be considered [47].Therefore, time synchronization is one of the primary elements in smart grids that enablesaccurate monitoring and protection and optimal control [47,48]. Thus, timing is also criticalfor CPTs.The requirement for time synchronization varies from one microsecond to hundredsof nanoseconds, depending on the device used, customer demands, and application ofinterest [48]. For example, traveling-wave fault detection requires synchronization on theorder of hundreds of nanoseconds to precisely locate a fault [48]. In [49], a traveling-wavefault-detection CPT was designed using an OPAL-RT system with a field-programmablegate array (FPGA) to generate transient signals over fiberoptic cables with a 500 ns timestep. This CPT allowed for testing the detection functionality for various fault-locatordevices. A synchrophasor or phasor measurement unit (PMU), on the other hand, measuresthe magnitude and phase angle to determine the health of the electrical grid and onlyrequires 30 observations per second [50]. Adikari et al. built a CPT to explore PMUcontrol interactions with the power grid by leveraging RTDS and various PMU HILpossibilities [51]. They generated several time-synchronized cyber–physical data setsof various cyberattacks in order to aid in intrusion-detection sensor development.The time synchronization requirements for power grids are often satisfied usingGPS- or protocol-based time synchronization [48]. In GPS-based time synchronization,a standard-reference atomic time signal into substations’ components is used. Protocolbased time synchronization uses network-based time-distribution protocols such as theNetwork Time Protocol (NTP).Energies 2021, 14, 1409 8 of 24Popular methods currently used for time distribution in smart grids described hereare summarized in Table 3:• Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a system of satellites with global coverage, facilitating geospatial positioning and precise time [50]. GNSS is an Americancompany. GLONASS is a similar system owned by the Russian state corporationRoscosmos. Time references provided by these GPS systems have accuracy to lessthan 100 nanoseconds, sufficient for most power-system applications [50].• The American Inter Range Instrumentation Group (IRIG) contains several standards,including IRIG Standard 200-98, IRIG-B, and IRIG Standard 200-04. This method usesa continuous stream of binary data to distribute time information. IRIG-B is the mostcommon standard; it facilitates geographically separated locations synchronizing to asingle time source [50].• Network Time Protocol (NTP) is designed to synchronize clocks of multiple computersover a packet network. In order to synchronize clocks over the network, the networkdelay between clocks must be known. Therefore, the accuracy of NTP depends onnetwork traffic. The accuracy of this method on LANs is around 1 millisecond and ison the order of tens of milliseconds for wide area networks (WANs) [50].• IEEE 1588 is designed for systems which require highly accurate time synchronization.Rather than using packet network, this approach uses “hardware time-stamping” todistribute time. The accuracy of this method lies under a microsecond [50] and is apopular standard to synchronize clocks on distributed systems.Table 3. Description of various timing synchronization schemes used within cyber–physical testbeds.Protocols Applications Advantages VulnerabilitiesGNSS Synchrophasor [48] Time synchronization acrosslarge geographic areasSpoofing [52], DoS [53] IRIG(IEEE 1344) Synchrophasors Contains a clock, quality indicator DoS, eavesdropping (if not encrypted) [54]NTPSubstation, microgrid,control center, powerelectronics outstationdevices, SCADAUniversally adoptedMalicious packetdelays [55], ARPspoofing [55]IEEE 1588 Control center,substation networks High degree of accuracy Time synchronization attacks [56]Most often in CPTs, the timing component is handled by the real-time simulator,with little need for timing network protocols. In [51], for example, network protocol IEEEC37.118 was used to communicate between various PMU devices in studying wide-areameasurement systems, but provided no mention of timing protocols used in the study,if there were any. Many PMU devices typically have internal GPS clocks that are ableto time-stamp measurements [29]. Additionally, most CPT components are within closeproximity to each other, which negates the need to account for data transmission over longdistances. However, the SCADA Security Laboratory and Power and Energy ResearchLaboratory at Mississippi State University comprise two remote sites on campus, one ofwhich contains a PMU and GPS substation control unit [14]. This would enable variousstudies involving attacks against network timing synchronization to explore potentialimpacts on various control schemes and physical-system typologies (simulated by RTDSand HITL).The design goals of the CPT may also impact what communication and timing standards are pared. For example, an automated control scheme using peer-to-peer communication among various IDEs would benefit from IEC 61850, which allows for high-resolution,Energies 2021, 14, 1409 9 of 24low-latency transmission of contextualized (e.g., providing the device of origin) data [57].A more precise timing protocol, such as the IEEE 1588, may be required for those use cases.DNP3 was designed for SCADA communication [58] and can be used for power-gridautomation [59]; however, it is not considered to be sufficiently flexible to handle all conceivable scenarios within the smart grid and, in particular, subsecond device controls [60].However, DNP3 was found to be a much more resilient protocol to packet rendering, datacorruption, jitter, and bandwith limitations than IEC 61850 [61]. A CPT that focuses on providing situational awareness and human-in-the-loop studies might more strongly considerDNP3, which supports a wide range of timing protocols. Modbus is most advantageouswhen dealing with serial communication [62]. Although, Modbus is capable of transmittingat faster rates than DNP3 [63,64] and is considered to be an important protocol for smartgrids [62], it is less popular in North America and Europe [62]. Like DNP3, Modbus is usedfor system monitoring and supports a wide range of timing protocols [65].3.3. Wide-Area Situational AwarenessFigure 3 represents a conceptual architecture for developing a real-time wide-areasituational awareness (WASA) system. The conceptual architecture of WASA consists ofthree main components: heterogeneous database, performance metrics, and visualization dashboards.DER ManagementSystems(DERMS)Distribution Grid UtilityDistributionManagement Systems(DMS)Load OutageManagement Systems(OMS)DER SCADA Systems Utility CommunicationGatewayMicrogridControllerCommunicationserverLocalcontrollersDER clientWorkstationSubgridBatteryStorageControllerSubgridPlug-in EVscontrollerSubgridDER clientSubgridDER clientMUD GWWindTurbinecontrollerEnergy Meterand PCCMUD GWAggregrator AggregratorMUD GWUtility Wide-Area Network (WAN)Point ofCommonCouplingMainGridAggregratorHeterogeneousDatabaseEvent VisualizationDashboardWide-Area SituationalAwareness (WASA)PerformanceMetricsTopologyLogPowerLogCyberLogPVControllerDER clientMUD GW3rd PartyAggregatorUtility’sAggregatorUtility’sAggregatorFigure 3. Conceptual architecture of WASA for DER-integrated distributed system.Energies 2021, 14, 1409 10 of 24The control center of a DER integrated distribution grid receives multidimensionalgrid measurements from DER client nodes, system logs from network sensors, firewallalerts from network sensors, and topology logs from other management systems. Therefore, a heterogeneous database system (HDS) is required to store these data sets for lateruse in other applications, such as resilience metrics, forensic analysis, and wide-area control (WAC). In addition, it can be used to facilitate event visualization through real-timeprocessing of incoming data.4. User interface for Cyber–Physical TestbedsEvent Visualization DashboardThe current power grid consists of several distributed sensors that rely on variouscommunication protocols, hardware, and software resources to provide multidimensionaldata sets with varying sampling rate to the control center. The significant increase in volume, velocity, and veracity of incoming grid measurements has led to big data challengesthat make it difficult for system operators to efficiently monitor grid networks and takenecessary corrective actions. Therefore, an event-visualization dashboard that can processphysical measurements, communications network traffic, system topology, system logs,firewall rules, and geographical information is needed to facilitate real-time cyber–physicalsituational awareness. Figure 4a,b show the visualization system pioneered by INL, whichfocuses on creating a simple real-time actionable interface for dispatchers and cyberdefenders to use for their various roles. The goal of this display is to aggregate meaningfulinformation together, facilitating rapid operational decisions and complementary contextfor the roles, as the root cause of events can include both cybernetic and physical elements.To minimize the amount of visual clutter, a simple object that is able to densely packall required information was needed. Inspiration for the design of the icon comes from theNational Fire Protection Association’s hazard identification system, NFPA 704 [66]. Thissystem uses a simple diamond that has been split into four sections. Each of these sectionsrequires a different response. When viewed together the NFPA 704 system providesimmediate information about response. The same logical goals were desired for the INLdeveloped resilience icon, shown in in Figure 4a.The resilience icon is divided into three sections to represent a system’s physical(using traditional reliability metrics), cybernetic (also using traditional reliability, alongwith malware detection), and resilience condition. Each of these sections will have colorschange based on the state of the system represented by the section. These colors takethree forms: green for normal status, yellow to indicate a warning (i.e., that action may berequired to prevent a system violation), and red, indicating a system violation has occurred.The resilience icon also shares similar function to the developed operational trustindicator (OTI) developed for the CyberSAVe application [67]. The OTI system focuses ondifferent metrics, but the idea is the same: a simple and straightforward icon that allowsfor immediate decisions indicated by the structure and colors of the icon.(a) (b)Figure 4. (a) Resilience-icon diagram and (b) mouse-over menu displayed next to its corresponding resilience icon, showingadditional information regarding the color rating.Energies 2021, 14, 1409 11 of 24The left-most section of the icon is concerned with the physical health of the system.This can include anything that is related to the physical behavior of any componentswithin the power grid (e.g., faults, under voltages, generators nearing capacity limits).The right section of the icon is associated with the cybernetic health of the system, includingerroneous connections, failed connections, failed login attempts, suspicious activity, or virusdetection. The final (bottom) section displays the resilience indications and uses theadaptive-capacity metric discussed in [68–71]. In brief, the adaptive capacity of a deviceshows how much additional real and reactive power could be used to respond to andrecover from a disturbance based on a components thermal limits. This metric easilyaggregates the adaptive capacity of collections of grid assets. Colors may be assigned inaccordance with NERC or IEEE standards with regards to thermal capacity. Furthermore,the icon has a mouse-over feature shown in Figure 4b, which allows for immediate messagesto be presented without the delay associated with an actual drill down.The icon can be associated with single components or aggregations. Figure 5 showsan example of the visualization for the IEEE 33 bus system with several of the bussesgrouped into aggregated system resources (ASRs). Each of the different ASR units canbe selected to drill down into lower levels that display the ASR’s internal components,as shown in Figure 6, where each bus now possesses its own resilience icon. By displayinginformation relevant to predefined levels of specific aggregated-component resolutions,the user is easily able to locate relevant information without becoming overwhelmed.The interconnections between all of the different elements also represent different states,such as normally closed, closed, normally open, or opened (Figure 5). Thus, the whole stateof the system can be visualized accurately to maintain a high degree of state awareness.Figure 5. Full display with different information presented (callouts on powerlines have been added for clarity).Energies 2021, 14, 1409 12 of 24Figure 6. Full display with different information presented.5. Cyber–Physical System TestingBecause CPTs are so diverse in nature, developing general standards that enable easycross comparison is difficult. However, as CPTs are CPSs, it makes sense to examine widelyadopted CPS-testing methods in order to determine appropriate testing methods for aparticular CPT. With this in mind, Zhou et al. conducted a survey of CPS testing and testbeds that identified six testing methods for CPSs: model based, search based, monitorbased, fault-injection based, big data driven, and cloud based [72]. Table 4 summarizeseach of these methods.MBT uses simulations of the same physical, cybernetic, or cyber–physical configurations to validate the CPT by comparing deviations of performance. This method wasused in [26] to validate the custom-designed emulators of transmission power lines bycomparing the emulation results to Simulink/MatLab models. This form of testing also hasthe advantage of not being limited to real-time; thus, it may be used to quickly generateresults for physical or cybercomponents [73–82].Search-based testing (SBT) is a process that leverages genetic algorithms, simulatedannealing, or like algorithms to create operating points or scenarios to be tested [72].Typically, researchers will test a CPT for proper functionality under expected circumstances.In works such as [80,83–86] SBT was applied in an attempt to discover testing scenariosthat would cause abnormal behavior in the CPSs—thus revealing flaws in the design. Thesesame techniques could be applied to CPTs in order to quantify their level of uncertainty orscope of reasonable operation. In combination with MBT, SBT could be an effective meansfor understanding the limitations of CPTs.Energies 2021, 14, 1409 13 of 24Table 4. Testing methods for cyber–physical testbeds adopted from techniques used to test cyberphysical systems.Testing Method Description DrawbackModel based Simulates testbed behaviorto validate performanceDepends on modelaccuracy, may lackpracticality on CPTs largelycomprised of simulationsSearch basedDiscovers anomalousoperating points andscope test bed limitationsLarge effort to creating SBTalgorithm, time consumingtestingMonitor basedAnalyzes test bedproperties (e.g., voltage)for conformity toexpected resultsLogical outputs maynot always beintuitively knownFault injectionInjects artificial failureto test for expectedresponseTest bed fault responsemay not always beintuitively knownBig data drivenLeverages big datatechniques (e.g., statistics)to test for expectedresponseBig data collection notalways available or practicalCloud basedLeverages cloud computingto test for expectedresponseBig data collection andcloud connection notalways available or practicalMonitor-based testing of CPSs is the process of conducting an analysis of the timeseries data produced by a system [72]. This analysis can include transformations, statisticalmethods, or simple reporting of the time-based data to verify the result is reasonable [87].For CPTs this may simply mean troubleshooting outputs from various components toensure results are reasonable. This is most commonly performed by analyzing raw data asstatistical or transform (e.g., Fast Fourier transform) methods may make intuitive analysisdifficult. Similar to the monitor-based testing, FBT of CPSs deliberately induces an artificialfailure and evaluates the system’s response, making system enhancements as necessary [72].This method may be more challenging for CPTs because system response to faults is notalways known and is often the point of a specific study. However, the number of reasonableresponses to a given fault is limited, a condition which may be leveraged to assess thevalidity of a CPTs simulation or emulation result.Big data-driven CPS testing uses big data analytical technique to aid in testing byleveraging or enhancing the CPS’s ability to process and store data [72]. Examples ofbig data-driven CPS testing include creating a big data system architecture, creating aframework for real-time, dynamic data processing, and creating prediction and diagnosismethods [88–96]. While big data techniques may not be useful for initial CPT developmentvalidation, they could find application in a well-established CPT that seeks to expandand must process large amounts of data. Likewise, cloud-based testing is not likely tobe a useful technique for early developmental validation of a CPT, but may be used forwell-established CPTs. Cloud-based testing involves feeding data from a CPS (or CPT) tothe cloud, where it is then analyzed. This may include network-traffic testing, testing asensor’s interaction with actuators, and security monitoring [97–107].The six testing methods in [72] may be used to improve four identified areas of CPSsalso identified by Zhou et al.—conformance to standards, robustness of the process, securityof the system, and fragility of the system. Conformance of the process attempts to quantify“the degree of compliance between the implementation and the required standards” [72].Energies 2021, 14, 1409 14 of 24More simply stated, the degree of likeness between the intended result and the actual result.For the power grid, this may mean measuring the deviation of voltage or frequency ofpower delivered to the loads from adopted standards like IEEE or the American NationalStandards Institute. The robustness of the process refers to assessing the fault tolerance ofa system. The security of the system assesses any physical- or cybersecurity issues withinthe CPSs. The fragility of the system refers to a CPS’s ability to continue operation withinacceptable tolerances despite abnormal perturbations to operating conditions (this is alsoknown as system resilience). CPTs are an effective way to assess each of these four areas.In order to develop and validate CPTs, however, MBT, SBT, and monitor-based testing maybe effective tools to ensure accurate behavior. Fault-injection, big data, and cloud-basedtesting, on the other hand, may be limited to more-intuitive use cases for functionalityvalidation in already established test beds.6. Example of Cyber–Physical Analysis And Design6.1. Simulation-Based Case StudyFigure 7 presents a modified IEEE 33-bus distributed system that was modeled as aradial network with the system rating voltage of 12.66 kV. This system consists of 33 busesand 32 connecting lines. Further, it was classified into 6 ASRs, which are grouped based onproximity, similar to a microgrid [70], and were fed by a synchronous generator. In thissystem, the total connected active power load and the reactive power load demands are3.715 MW and 2.300 MVAr. The given system was modeled in ARTEMiS/SSN (eMEGASIM)in the MATLAB-Simulink environment and simulated at a time step of 50 microsecondsin the electromagnetic transient (EMT) domain. In addition, circuit breakers, tie-linereclosers, fault indicators, and a 10-kW grid-connected PV array on Bus 25 were modeled.The modeled tie-lines, initially set to open, provided interconnections between multipleASRs and also facilitated network reconfiguration during line contingencies, includingline faults. The modeled PV array was operating as a constant power-factor mode oractive-reactive power (P-Q) control mode while supplying active power of 10 kW.1 2MV Substation3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 111213 14 15 16 171826 27 28 29 30 3123 24 2519 2021 22ASR 5ASR 6ASR 1ASR 4ASR 2 ASR 332 33Distribution line PVCircuit breakerTie-line ReclosureFault indicatorTielineCyberAttackFigure 7. IEEE 33-bus distributed network with a PV array.Energies 2021, 14, 1409 15 of 246.2. Cyber-Attack VectorsThe increased dependency on information and communication technologies (ICTs) hasmade power systems increasingly vulnerable to various cyber–physical attacks [108]. Theseattacks range from reconnaissance attacks, the objective of which is to gain information onthe system, to attacks that attempt to disrupt the system such as denial of service (DoS),replay, or data-insertion attacks [109,110]. DoS attacks are some of the most-commonapproaches to disrupt communication networks. DoS can be used by an adversary toaffect the dynamic performance of power systems, leading to unstable behavior [111].Replay attacks capture real messages to be replayed later so as to obfuscate the current stateof the system [112,113]. False-data-injection attacks manipulate communication data tocreate confusion and trigger incorrect responses that disrupt the system while preventingdetection [114]. Ramp and scaling attacks are examples of false-data-injection attacks.These attacks consist of making small or gradual modifications to true measurements toconfuse the system and trigger control actions that are not appropriate for the actual stateof the system. Ramp attacks are gradual modifications of true measurements while scalingattacks add or subtract a small percentage value to measurements. These types of attackscan be specifically tuned to cause disruption while evading detection by carefully choosingthe scale of the modifications. Using a representative pool of cyberattacks to validatedetection and mitigation mechanisms is essential for cyber–physical system testing.As an illustration of FBT, ramp and scaling attacks against the PV-integrated distribution system (Figure 7) were considered. Further, it was assumed that the inverter of the PVarray was compromised, and the attacker was able to modify the internal setting of theinverter by applying the following attack templates.1. Scaling attack: This attack involves modifying the measurement signal to a higher orlower value, depending on the scaling attack parameter, lscale, as shown in (1). 2.Ramp attack: This attack vector involves adding a time-varying ramp signal to theinput control signal based on a ramp signal parameter, lramp, as shown in (2).Pscale = Pi(1 + lscale)Pramp = Pi + lramp ∗ t(1)(2) 6.3. Results and DiscussionsFigures 8 and 9 show the injected disturbances in power flows at Bus 25 during pulseand ramping attacks on the 10-kW PV array. During the ramp attack, a time-varyingramp signal with the specified parameter (lramp = ±200) is added to the DC link referencepoint (Vdcref) inside the three-phase three-level voltage source converter (VSC) of thePV array after 8 seconds. During the ramp-up attack (lramp = +200), it can be observedthat the power flow at Bus 25 increases to around 575.6 kW at 9.6 s. However, during theramp-down attack (lramp = -200), the system has a minor impact where the power flowat Bus 25 is gradually reduced to 564.7 kW at 8.2 s, and power flow at this bus is finallyrecovered at 8.8 s.Energies 2021, 14, 1409 16 of 247.8 8 8.2 8.4 8.6 8.8 9 9.2 9.4 9.6565570575580Ramp-up Attack7.8 8 8.2 8.4 8.6 8.8 9 9.2 9.4 9.6Time (second)564565566567568569Power flows at bus 25 (kW)Ramp-down AttackAttack InitiatedAttack InitiatedFigure 8. Power flows at bus 25 during ramp-up and ramp-down attacks.7.8 8 8.2 8.4 8.6 8.8 9 9.2 9.4 9.6560570580590600Scale-up Attack7.8 8 8.2 8.4 8.6 8.8 9 9.2 9.4 9.6Time (second)562564566568570572Power flows at bus 25 (kW)Scale-down AttackAttack InitiatedAttack InitiatedFigure 9. Power flows at bus 25 during scale-up and scaling-down attacks.Energies 2021, 14, 1409 17 of 24During the scaling attack, the Vdcref was modified by half its original value (lscale =±0.5), and this attack was performed after 8 s. During the scale-up ((lscale = +0.5) on Vdcref,the initial power flow was increased to 590 kW at 8.05 s and exhibited a major oscillationwith low frequency. During the scale-down ((lscale = -0.5), the power flow was reducedto 563.4 kW, and a minor oscillation was observed, with high-frequency components ascompared to the previous scale-up attack. From these two experiments, it can be inferredthat the ramp-up and scale-up attacks have more severe impact than do ramp-down andscale-down attacks. Further, it can be concluded that the impact of cyberattacks dependson the nature of attack, and the scaling attack injects more transient instability than a rampattack because of its instantaneous change of the signal to extreme values. This result wasexpected and is an example of FBT validation, discussed in Section 5 as large instantaneouschanges (scale attack) should produce more power-flow instability than gradual changes(ramp attack). Additionally, emulated or hardware-based test beds of the IEEE 33 bussystem may use models like this to validate their performance (i.e., MBT, also discussed inSection 5).6.4. Potential Mitigation Solutions for Data-Integrity AttacksThere exist several approaches to development of intrusion-detection systems (IDSs)to detect different classes of data-integrity attacks, which include pulse and scaling attacks.In general, these approaches can be classified into two broad categories: signature-basedIDS and anomaly-based IDSs.1. Signature-based IDS relies on network traffic to detect different classes of dataintegrity attacks based on the defined attack-signature database. Several IDS tools,including BRO (Zeek), Snort, Firestorm, and Spade can be applied in developingsignature-based IDS in real-time in a cyber–physical test bed environment.2. Anomaly-based IDS detects intrusions based on deviations from the normal behaviorof the distribution system. It includes different types, such as model-based IDS,machine-learning-based IDS, multi-agent-based IDS. These are discussed below.(a) Model-based IDS utilizes the current grid information, historical measurements, and other relevant information to develop a baseline model and detectsattacks based on the statistical and temporal correlation analysis of incominggrid measurements.(b) Learning-based IDS applies machine learning, deep-learning, and data miningalgorithms to identify different types of stealthy and sophisticated attacksusing grid measurements. Further, it also distinguishes them from other events,including line faults, extreme weather events, etc. For example, decision treealgorithms can be utilized in detecting different data integrity attacks usingsynchrophasor measurements in real-time.(c) Multi-agent-based IDS consists of several distributed agents that utilize bothcyber and physical measurements to develop anomaly detection algorithmsthrough agent co-ordination and information sharing. Further, it can be utilized for developing attack-resilient protection and control schemes that candetect attacks at an early stage and initiate necessary mitigation strategies torestore the normal operation of the power grid.7. ConclusionsThe design tradeoffs between various elements in a CPT test bed can be broken downinto three different categories: physical components, soft components, and user interfaces.Representations of CPTs physical, cybernetic, cyber–physical parts were reviewed withinthe context of balancing cost, computational expense, and fidelity. The scalability ofsimulated systems within CPTs enables them to be highly cost effective, but with a lowerresolution than more computationally expensive system emulators. Physical hardware wasconsidered to have no computational expense, but had the highest financial cost associatedwith operation and maintenance. Relevant communication protocols were described,Energies 2021, 14, 1409 18 of 24as were timing considerations to be used based on the goals of the CPT. Wide-area testbed representations with data visualization aspects of CPTs were also explored. Methodsfor testing CPSs were leveraged as potential avenues for developing generalized testingmethods to validate the performance of CPTs. An initial demonstration on an IEEE 33bus system, together with examples for how MBT and FBT may be applied to validatethe CPT performance, was also discussed. Lastly, detection strategies for these types ofattacks were considered. The authors hope to inspire more discussion about CPT testingand validation to enable better comparison among different test beds. CPTs enable easyexploration for improving CPSs that impact everyday life. Thus, developing effectivemethods to ensure proper functionality and better defining the limitations of these CPTs isan important subject in need of further exploration.Author Contributions: Conceptualization, B.V., C.R., and M.M.; methodology, B.V., V.K.S., J.L. andC.R.; software, J.L., T.P., and V.K.S.; validation, J.L., and V.K.S.; formal analysis, B.V. and V.K.S.;investigation, B.V. and V.K.S.; Project administration B.V.; writing—original draft preparation, B.V.,V.K.S., R.I., D.L.M., C.S.W. and J.L.; writing—review and editing, B.V., V.K.S., R.I., D.L.M., C.S.W., J.L.,T.P., C.R. and M.M.; supervision, B.V.; funding acquisition, C.R. All authors have read and agreed tothe published version of the manuscript.Funding: This research was completed by Idaho National Laboratory with funding from the U.S.Department of Energy. Idaho National Laboratory is operated by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC,under contract No. DE AC07-05ID14517.Acknowledgments: This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’sOffice of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) under the Solar Energy Technology OfficeAward Number DE-0008775. Effort performed through Department of Energy under U.S. DOE IdahoOperations Office , Contract DE-AC07-05ID14517, as part of the Resilient Control and InstrumentationSystems (ReCIS) program of Idaho National Laboratory.Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. The funders had no role in the designof the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript; orin the decision to publish the results.AbbreviationsThe following abbreviations are used in this manuscript: ASRAggregated system resourcesCITRCCPSCPTCTCritical Infrastructure Test Range ComplexCyber–physical systemsCyber–physical testbedsCurrent transformerDERDistributed energy resorcesDNP3Distributed network protocol 3DoSDenial of serviceEMTFBTGNSSGOOSEHILElectromagnetic transientFault injection-based testingGlobal Navigation Satellite SystemGeneric object-oriented substation eventsHardware in the loopHMIHuman machine interfacesHVACHigh voltage alternating currentHVDCHigh voltage direct currentICTInformation communication technologies Energies 2021, 14, 1409 19 of 24 IDSIntrusion detection systemsIECInternational Electrical CommissionIEDIntelligent electronic deviceIEEEInstitute of Electrical and Electronics EngineersINLIdaho National LaboratoryIPInternet protocolIRIGI/OLANAmerican Inter Range Instrumentation GroupInput/outputLocal area networkMBTModel based testingNISTNational Institute of StandardsNTPNetwork time protocolOPCOpen platform communicationsOSIOpen systems interconnectionOTIOperational trust indicatorPLCProgrammable logic controllerPMUSBTSCADAPhasor measurement unitSearch-based testingSupervisory control and data acquisitionTCPUAVTTransmission control protocolUnified architectureVoltage transformerWANXMLWide area networkeXtensible Markup Language References1. 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